William Cheselden (1688-1752) is something of a surgical legend. The Englishman performed the first known (complete) surgical cure for blindness and transformed bladder stone removal from an hour-long bit of butchery into a fast procedure with a 50 percent mortality rate -- a huge improvement at the time.
Cheselden also gave the world "Osteographia," his 1733 book on "the anatomy of the bones." It was a groundbreaking text, both in terms of published data on the skeletal system and the use of anatomical illustrations. As usual, the illustrations within contain quite a few artistic flourishes, from the skeleton in prayer above to the tableaus of man and beast below: